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ramé-hart Newsletter


June 2023

Cursory Overview of Applications that Benefit from Contact Angle - Part 1

This month, we will take a closer look at some of the applications and industries that benefit from a better understanding of contact angle and wetting behavior.


The field of material science has captivated researchers, as they strive to engineer nanosurfaces endowed with distinctive and manipulable properties. In particular, the goal  to replicate the remarkable characteristics of the Lotus leaf has spurred the creation of superhydrophobic surfaces, characterized by exceedingly low wetting behavior. The manifestation of high contact angles on such surfaces engenders a self-cleaning attribute, reminiscent of the Lotus leaf's innate properties. A notable exemplar of this endeavor is Lotusan paint, a commercially available product that emulates the Lotus leaf's remarkable properties. Concurrently, investigations are underway to develop coatings tailored for fabrics and glass substrates, which exhibit reduced wetting phenomena and exemplify super-repellency.

Beyond surface modifications, scientific endeavors delve into the realm of nanomaterials and metamaterials construction, with the aim of revolutionizing colloidal and microfluidic systems. Researchers strive to manipulate the building blocks at the nanoscale, forging materials with tailored properties and behavior. This pioneering pursuit holds immense promise for a myriad of applications, paving the way for enhanced functionality and performance in colloidal and microfluidic systems. The intricacies of material science continue to unfold as scientists seek to unravel the secrets behind natural phenomena and harness them to shape novel technologies and materials. Through meticulous exploration and groundbreaking research, the boundaries of possibility are being stretched, ultimately propelling humanity towards a future of scientific innovation and advancement.


The characterization of contact angle holds paramount importance in elucidating wafer cleanliness and evaluating the effectiveness of various cleaning, coating, etching, and bonding procedures employed in the intricate fabrication of semiconductor wafers. Specifically tailored to meet the rigorous demands of the semiconductor industry, the ramé-hart Model 400 emerges as a pioneering solution, purposefully designed to address the unique challenges faced in this domain.

By precisely quantifying the contact angle, the ramé-hart Model 400 empowers researchers and engineers to gain invaluable insights into the efficacy and quality of vital processes, such as HMDS treatment, plasma cleaning, and other crucial procedures. With its specialized features and capabilities, this cutting-edge instrument serves as an indispensable tool in the realm of semiconductor production.

The inherent complexities of the semiconductor industry necessitate a robust and accurate approach for assessing the intricate interplay between surface properties, cleaning methodologies, and the subsequent impact on wafer fabrication. Through the integration of advanced technology and meticulous engineering, the ramé-hart Model 400 emerges as the pinnacle of precision and reliability, elevating the understanding and optimization of crucial processes within the semiconductor landscape.

Textile & Fiber

The significance of contact angle measurement within the textile and fiber industry cannot be overstated. While cotton yarn typically exhibits strong affinity towards water, synthetic fabrics possess distinct contact angles when exposed to water droplets. For instance, materials like nylon typically present a contact angle of approximately 40 degrees. This necessitates the application of appropriate wetting agents to coat fabrics, ensuring effective removal of dirt and soil during washing processes involving water. However, in the context of raincoat or umbrella cloth manufacturing, the utilization of a non-wetting surface proves advantageous. By coating the fabric with a silicon polymer, an exceptionally non-wetting system can be achieved. Waterproofing or water-repellency, a vital industrial process, relies heavily on the manipulation of contact angle values. Precise control over these wetting properties paves the way for the development of textiles with superior performance characteristics in terms of water resistance and repellency.

Polymers and Plastics

The realm of polymers, encompassing notable examples such as polyethylene, polypropylene, and Teflon, exhibits a characteristic high contact angle behavior when in contact with various liquids. This unique attribute has been harnessed in numerous polymer applications, yielding substantial benefits. A prominent illustration is the Teflon-coated frying pan, where contact angle measurements have revealed an approximately 35-degree angle for cooking oil on Teflon surfaces. Such a low contact angle ensures that oil does not adhere tenaciously, facilitating effortless cleaning processes.

Nevertheless, certain applications necessitate the utilization of polymers with reduced contact angles, particularly in the realm of inks and coatings. The inherent high contact angle of polymers in these scenarios presents challenges for proper bonding and adhesion. Consequently, surface modifications are employed to lower the contact angle and elevate the surface energy, thereby facilitating enhanced bonding and adhesion capabilities.

Through precise manipulation of the contact angle and surface properties, scientists and engineers continue to unlock new realms of polymer functionality, empowering diverse industries to optimize performance and meet ever-evolving demands. The interplay between contact angle behavior, surface modifications, and material characteristics illuminates pathways for advancements in adhesion science and the development of innovative applications.


The efficacy of insecticide sprays rests significantly upon their wetting characteristics when they come into contact with the surfaces of insects. In the majority of cases, insecticides employ organic liquids with inherently low surface tension as spraying agents, facilitating their complete spreading. Consequently, the contact angle emerges as a pivotal parameter that demands meticulous consideration in the formulation of pesticide and insecticide sprays.

Understanding the contact angle behavior of these sprays on a variety of surfaces is indispensable for optimizing their performance and ensuring effective pest control. By evaluating the contact angle, scientists and researchers gain valuable insights into the wetting behavior and spreading capabilities of the insecticide on insect surfaces. This knowledge serves as a crucial guide in formulating and fine-tuning insecticide sprays to achieve maximum coverage and enhanced efficacy against target pests.

The precise manipulation of contact angle parameters enables the development of advanced insecticide formulations with superior wetting properties, ensuring comprehensive coverage and improved adhesion on insect surfaces. By leveraging contact angle as a fundamental parameter, the scientific community continues to refine and innovate insecticide spray formulations, ushering in new frontiers in pest management and agricultural practices.

Oil and Petroleum

Contact angle studies have yielded a significant technological application in the realm of enhanced oil recovery from sand beds. Through laboratory experiments involving water displacement of petroleum in glass capillaries, it has been observed that a substantial portion of the oil remains adhered to the capillary wall even when the central region is saturated with water. Analogously, in a sand column, the quantity of residual oil within the sand is directly proportional to the contact angle as water advances downstream.

Efforts to optimize oil recovery have led to the implementation of surfactant-assisted flooding, wherein oil wells are inundated with a combination of surfactants, water, or steam. This approach serves to mitigate pressure differentials across the oil-water menisci, decrease oil-water interfacial tension, and modify the contact angle, thereby facilitating water displacement of oil at the liquid-solid interface. This transformative process, known as tertiary oil recovery, has ushered in the possibility of surpassing 90% oil recovery from a given oil well.

Through the strategic manipulation of contact angles and interfacial properties, the scientific community continues to unlock new avenues for maximizing oil recovery and optimizing resource utilization in the oil industry. The use of surfactants and careful control of fluid interactions at the liquid-solid interface present promising prospects for enhancing oil production efficiency and meeting the ever-growing global energy demands.

To be continued...

Product of the Month: Model 210
Introducing the ramé-hart Model 210 Goniometer / Tensiometer – the ultimate solution for precise measurements of contact angle, surface energy, surface tension, and interfacial tension. Trusted by researchers and scientists worldwide, the Model 210 is a top-selling instrument that combines reliability, versatility, and affordability. With its comprehensive package, including DROPimage Pro software, fiber optic illuminator, 3-axis leveling stage, and a high-speed digital camera, this turn-key system is ready to revolutionize your research.

ramé-hart Model 210 Goniometer / Tensiometer

Experience the power of DROPimage Pro software, designed to accurately measure contact angles and provide an array of surface energy analysis tools. From the Acid-Base Tool to Zisman's Plot Tool, you'll have all the resources at your fingertips to delve deep into surface properties. Not only does DROPimage Pro measure surface tension, but it also enables you to explore interfacial tension for comprehensive characterization.

Upgrade your capabilities with DROPimage Advanced, which transforms your Model 210 into a dynamic platform for advanced experiments and time-dependent studies. With a seamless software upgrade, you can unlock a world of possibilities and build methods-based experiments tailored to your evolving research needs.

For researchers seeking enhanced measurement capabilities, the Manual Tilting Base option is available, allowing you to accurately determine advancing and receding angles, calculate the roll-off angle, and analyze contact angle hysteresis. For even greater automation and precision, the Automated Dispensing System, supported by DROPimage Pro, takes your experiments to the next level.

Built on the trusted ramé-hart design, the Model 210 offers an affordable solution ideal for universities and research labs. Countless customers have started their journey with the Model 210 and later upgraded to DROPimage Advanced as their demands grew. For those interested in the advanced software package, the Model 250 is the perfect choice, featuring all the capabilities of the Model 210 plus DROPimage Advanced.

Unleash the full potential of your research with the ramé-hart Model 210 Goniometer / Tensiometer. Invest in a powerful tool trusted by experts worldwide, and discover a new realm of precision, accuracy, and innovation in surface characterization. Don't miss out on this complete turn-key system that's ready to propel your scientific endeavors forward. Upgrade your research capabilities today and embrace the future of surface analysis. For a no-obligation quotation, contact us today.


Carl Clegg
Director of Sales
Phone 973-448-0305
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