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Technical Information

Unlock the gateway to over 60 years of unrivaled excellence as you step into the world of ramé-hart—the vanguard and unrivaled leader of contact angle goniometers and tensiometers. With an unwavering commitment to pioneering innovation, ramé-hart instrument company proudly stands as the largest and most revered entity solely dedicated to the creation, distribution, and support of cutting-edge contact angle and surface tension tools.

Within our extensive portfolio lies a treasure trove of time-tested designs meticulously engineered to meet the diverse demands of research and quality control environments. From laboratories to industrial settings, ramé-hart instruments are the veritable cornerstone of precision and reliability. Yet, we understand that the quest for scientific exploration knows no bounds, which is why, since our inception in 1961, we have mastered the art and science of crafting instruments and fixtures tailored to your unique specifications.

For over six decades, ramé-hart has proudly birthed thousands of Contact Angle Goniometers—many of which remain in active service to this day. Our commitment goes beyond mere production; we ensure the longevity of your investment through our impeccable servicing and upgrade programs, breathing new life into legacy instruments. Moreover, we present a captivating lineup of state-of-the-art, current-generation instruments, meticulously engineered to harness the latest technological breakthroughs. To facilitate your seamless transition, our upgrade kits enable the migration of your legacy tools to the pinnacle of cutting-edge technology. At ramé-hart instrument co., the pursuit of 100% customer satisfaction is the very essence of our existence. Every single one of our tools is backed by an iron-clad warranty, a testament to our unwavering dedication to quality and reliability.

With a rich heritage steeped in expertise, we stand proudly as your steadfast partner on the path to scientific triumph. Experience the power of ramé-hart, where uncompromising excellence merges with unparalleled customer-centricity. Join our legacy and redefine the boundaries of scientific achievement with absolute confidence.

Below are some of the applications and industries that benefit from a better understanding of contact angle, surface energy, and surface tension:


The field of material science has captivated researchers, as they strive to engineer nanosurfaces endowed with distinctive and manipulable properties. In particular, the quest to replicate the remarkable characteristics of the Lotus leaf has spurred the creation of superhydrophobic surfaces, characterized by exceedingly low wetting behavior. The manifestation of high contact angles on such surfaces engenders a self-cleaning attribute, reminiscent of the Lotus leaf's innate properties. A notable exemplar of this endeavor is Lotusan paint, a commercially available product that emulates the Lotus leaf's remarkable properties. Concurrently, investigations are underway to develop coatings tailored for fabrics and glass substrates, which exhibit reduced wetting phenomena and exemplify super-repellency.

Beyond surface modifications, scientific endeavors delve into the realm of nanomaterials and metamaterials construction, with the aim of revolutionizing colloidal and microfluidic systems. Researchers strive to manipulate the building blocks at the nanoscale, forging materials with tailored properties and behavior. This pioneering pursuit holds immense promise for a myriad of applications, paving the way for enhanced functionality and performance in colloidal and microfluidic systems. The intricacies of material science continue to unravel as scientists seek to unravel the secrets behind natural phenomena and harness them to shape novel technologies and materials. Through meticulous exploration and groundbreaking research, the boundaries of possibility are being stretched, ultimately propelling humanity towards a future of scientific innovation and advancement.


The characterization of contact angle holds paramount importance in elucidating wafer cleanliness and evaluating the effectiveness of various cleaning, coating, etching, and bonding procedures employed in the intricate fabrication of semiconductor wafers. Specifically tailored to meet the rigorous demands of the semiconductor industry, the ramé-hart Model 400 emerges as a pioneering solution, purposefully designed to address the unique challenges faced in this domain.

By precisely quantifying the contact angle, the ramé-hart Model 400 empowers researchers and engineers to gain invaluable insights into the efficacy and quality of vital processes, such as HMDS treatment, plasma cleaning, and other crucial procedures. With its specialized features and capabilities, this cutting-edge instrument serves as an indispensable tool in the realm of semiconductor production.

The inherent complexities of the semiconductor industry necessitate a robust and accurate approach for assessing the intricate interplay between surface properties, cleaning methodologies, and the subsequent impact on wafer fabrication. Through the integration of advanced technology and meticulous engineering, the ramé-hart Model 400 emerges as the pinnacle of precision and reliability, elevating the understanding and optimization of crucial processes within the semiconductor landscape.

Textile & Fiber

The significance of contact angle measurement within the textile and fiber industry cannot be overstated. While cotton yarn typically exhibits strong affinity towards water, synthetic fabrics possess distinct contact angles when exposed to water droplets. For instance, materials like nylon typically present a contact angle of approximately 40 degrees. This necessitates the application of appropriate wetting agents to coat fabrics, ensuring effective removal of dirt and soil during washing processes involving water. However, in the context of raincoat or umbrella cloth manufacturing, the utilization of a non-wetting surface proves advantageous. By coating the fabric with a silicon polymer, an exceptionally non-wetting system can be achieved. Waterproofing or water-repellency, a vital industrial process, relies heavily on the manipulation of contact angle values. Precise control over these wetting properties paves the way for the development of textiles with superior performance characteristics in terms of water resistance and repellency.

Polymers and Plastics

The realm of polymers, encompassing notable examples such as polyethylene, polypropylene, and Teflon, exhibits a characteristic high contact angle behavior when in contact with various liquids. This unique attribute has been harnessed in numerous polymer applications, yielding substantial benefits. A prominent illustration is the Teflon-coated frying pan, where contact angle measurements have revealed an approximately 35-degree angle for cooking oil on Teflon surfaces. Such a low contact angle ensures that oil does not adhere tenaciously, facilitating effortless cleaning processes.

Nevertheless, certain applications necessitate the utilization of polymers with reduced contact angles, particularly in the realm of inks and coatings. The inherent high contact angle of polymers in these scenarios presents challenges for proper bonding and adhesion. Consequently, surface modifications are employed to lower the contact angle and elevate the surface energy, thereby facilitating enhanced bonding and adhesion capabilities.

Through precise manipulation of the contact angle and surface properties, scientists and engineers continue to unlock new realms of polymer functionality, empowering diverse industries to optimize performance and meet ever-evolving demands. The interplay between contact angle behavior, surface modifications, and material characteristics illuminates pathways for advancements in adhesion science and the development of innovative applications.


The efficacy of insecticide sprays rests significantly upon their wetting characteristics when they come into contact with the surfaces of insects. In the majority of cases, insecticides employ organic liquids with inherently low surface tension as spraying agents, facilitating their complete spreading. Consequently, the contact angle emerges as a pivotal parameter that demands meticulous consideration in the formulation of pesticide and insecticide sprays.

Understanding the contact angle behavior of these sprays is indispensable for optimizing their performance and ensuring effective pest control. By evaluating the contact angle, scientists and researchers gain valuable insights into the wetting behavior and spreading capabilities of the insecticide on insect surfaces. This knowledge serves as a crucial guide in formulating and fine-tuning insecticide sprays to achieve maximum coverage and enhanced efficacy against target pests.

The precise manipulation of contact angle parameters enables the development of advanced insecticide formulations with superior wetting properties, ensuring comprehensive coverage and improved adhesion on insect surfaces. By leveraging contact angle as a fundamental parameter, the scientific community continues to refine and innovate insecticide spray formulations, ushering in new frontiers in pest management and agricultural practices.

Oil and Petroleum

Contact angle studies have yielded a significant technological application in the realm of enhanced oil recovery from sand beds. Through laboratory experiments involving water displacement of petroleum in glass capillaries, it has been observed that a substantial portion of the oil remains adhered to the capillary wall even when the central region is saturated with water. Analogously, in a sand column, the quantity of residual oil within the sand is directly proportional to the contact angle as water advances downstream.

Efforts to optimize oil recovery have led to the implementation of surfactant-assisted flooding, wherein oil wells are inundated with a combination of surfactants, water, or steam. This approach serves to mitigate pressure differentials across the oil-water menisci, decrease oil-water interfacial tension, and modify the contact angle, thereby facilitating water displacement of oil at the liquid-solid interface. This transformative process, known as tertiary oil recovery, has ushered in the possibility of surpassing 90% oil recovery from a given oil well.

Through the strategic manipulation of contact angles and interfacial properties, the scientific community continues to unlock new avenues for maximizing oil recovery and optimizing resource utilization in the oil industry. The utilization of surfactants and careful control of fluid interactions at the liquid-solid interface present promising prospects for enhancing oil production efficiency and meeting the ever-growing global energy demands.


In the fast-paced world of semiconductor chip manufacturing, achieving optimal performance, precision, and reliability is paramount. Makers of these advanced computer chips are constantly seeking innovative methods to enhance their fabrication processes.

Contact angle analysis, a powerful technique rooted in surface science, offers valuable insights that can revolutionize the production of semiconductor chips. By harnessing the benefits of contact angle measurements, chip manufacturers can optimize surface treatments, improve adhesion, and enhance overall chip performance.

The intricate process of fabricating semiconductor chips involves numerous surface treatments that play a critical role in performance and reliability. Contact angle analysis enables chip manufacturers to precisely evaluate and tailor these treatments to achieve optimal results. By characterizing the wetting behavior of fluids used in surface treatments, such as etchants, cleansers, and coatings, contact angle measurements provide essential data to optimize process parameters, ensure uniformity, and enhance adhesion between different layers and materials.

The effective bonding and adhesion of various layers within a semiconductor chip are vital for its functionality and durability. Contact angle analysis allows chip makers to assess the wetting behavior and surface energy of bonding agents and adhesives. This knowledge enables the selection of suitable materials and formulations that promote strong interfacial adhesion, reducing delamination and improving overall chip reliability. By leveraging contact angle measurements, manufacturers can enhance the bonding process, optimize material compatibility, and reduce the risk of failure due to poor adhesion.

Surface modifications play a crucial role in semiconductor chip manufacturing, enabling precise patterning, contamination control, and improved electrical performance. Contact angle analysis provides a comprehensive understanding of surface modifications, such as plasma treatments, coatings, and functionalization techniques. By characterizing the wetting properties and surface energy changes resulting from these modifications, chip manufacturers can precisely control the effectiveness of these processes. This knowledge empowers them to fine-tune surface properties, enhance patterning accuracy, minimize defects, and improve the overall performance of the chips.

The semiconductor industry operates on razor-thin margins, and optimizing yield and performance is crucial for success. Contact angle analysis offers a powerful tool for quality assurance and process control. By monitoring contact angles at different stages of chip fabrication, manufacturers can detect variations, identify potential issues early, and implement corrective measures to maximize yield and consistency. Additionally, contact angle measurements enable chip makers to optimize critical parameters, such as surface cleanliness, surface roughness, and film thickness, to ensure consistent and high-quality chip production.

Hard Disk Drives

The manufacturing processes of a magnetic hard disk and its associated magnetic head slider exhibit a significant dependence on surface cleanliness and surface wettability, particularly concerning the application of lubricants onto the surface. Parameters such as contact angle and surface energy assume a pivotal role in facilitating engineers' endeavors to design and assess hard drive products that effectively mitigate stiction, minimize flying height, and enhance overall product reliability.


In the mining industry, a comprehensive understanding of contact angle assumes considerable significance, particularly in the context of froth flotation, a process employed to concentrate minerals of heavy metals such as zincblende, galena, chalcopyrite, and others. This technique involves the agitation of finely divided minerals within a froth consisting of water and air, causing some minerals to float while others sink. The valuable minerals selectively adhere to air bubbles, rising with them to the froth layer where they are subsequently collected. The ease with which a particle floats is influenced by the contact angle formed at the interface between the particle, water, and air. A smaller contact angle impedes the flotation process. To address this, measures are taken to increase the contact angle, often up to 60 degrees, by introducing specific chemical agents known as "collectors." Alkyl xanthanates (such as CH3.O.CS.Sna) are commonly used collectors in this regard. By incorporating these collectors, the contact angle is effectively enhanced, enabling improved flotation efficiency and mineral recovery.


In the chemical industry, heat exchangers and condensers play a crucial role, and attaining optimal efficiency necessitates the utilization of non-wetting agents, such as calcium stearate or oleic acid, to coat the metal surfaces. By employing these coatings, liquids that condense on the treated walls form distinct droplets due to the high contact angle exhibited, facilitating their easy detachment and downward flow. This technique is commonly referred to as "dropwise" condensation.

Measurement of the contact angle assumes significance in effectively controlling the surface area of the droplets, thereby enabling the manipulation of evaporation rates and facilitating the optimization of surface wetting in heat exchangers. Through careful control of the contact angle, the desired balance between droplet growth and shedding can be achieved, ultimately enhancing heat transfer efficiency and promoting optimal performance of the system.


Contact angle also plays a significant role in the domain of detergency, which involves the cleaning of garments and other items using surface-active agents. To effectively eliminate dirt, grease, oil, and other contaminants from soiled fabrics, it is imperative that water can spread and penetrate the particles of dirt. The occurrence of spreading hinges on minimizing the interfacial tension between the solid-liquid and liquid-vapor interfaces.

In this context, detergents play a vital role by reducing these interfacial tensions through the process of adsorption. By adsorbing onto the surfaces, detergents lower the interfacial tensions, thereby facilitating the desired spreading of water and subsequent penetration of dirt particles. The formulation of lotions, oils, soaps, and other toiletries for human skin and hair strands benefits greatly from contact angle measurements, as they provide crucial insights for achieving precise formulations. Consequently, contact angle measurements have become an integral part of the routine practices in this field, aiding in the development of effective and appropriate products.


A comprehensive understanding of the contact angle behavior exhibited by liquid metals on metal and oxide surfaces assumes paramount importance in elucidating various processes such as soldering, brazing, tinning, and heat transfer. The characterization of surface roughness, oxidation, and wetting behavior for diverse types of metals and metal finishing relies heavily on the utilization of contact angle measurements.

In the realm of soldering, brazing, and tinning, knowledge of the contact angle aids in comprehending the interactions between the liquid metal and the substrate, which is crucial for achieving proper wetting and bonding. It allows for the assessment of surface compatibility, the influence of surface roughness on wetting behavior, and the impact of oxide layers on bonding quality. Furthermore, in the context of heat transfer, understanding the contact angle behavior facilitates the optimization of heat dissipation and thermal management in various applications.

By employing contact angle measurements, engineers and researchers can gain valuable insights into the intricate dynamics of liquid metal behavior on metal and oxide surfaces. This knowledge serves as a foundation for enhancing process efficiency, quality control, and overall performance in soldering, brazing, tinning, and heat transfer applications across different industries.

Plating and Printing and Inks

Achieving successful plating operations necessitates meticulous attention to surface cleanliness. The contact angle parameter serves as a predictive indicator for adhesion and finds extensive use in quality assurance testing of surfaces intended for plating. Notably, ASTM Standards, such as D7490 and D7334, have incorporated contact angle measurements to assess wettability, a critical factor in ensuring optimal adhesion and mitigating surface-related issues such as cratering, dewetting, and crawling.

While wetting is instrumental in promoting adhesion, it is crucial to strike the right balance, as excessive wetting can lead to undesirable outcomes such as ink bleeding and impaired functionality. In the production of inks, the contact angle formed by an ink droplet on paper plays a decisive role in determining printing quality. Empirical observations have established that an ideal contact angle falls within the range of 90 degrees to 110 degrees. A contact angle lower than 90 degrees results in ink spreading on the paper, while a contact angle exceeding 110 degrees leads to printing failures characterized by breaks or interruptions.

By carefully controlling the contact angle in ink manufacturing processes, practitioners can optimize printing quality and prevent issues associated with improper wetting. Adhering to the recommended contact angle range ensures satisfactory ink performance, enabling accurate and reliable printing outcomes.

Other Applications

The comprehensive examination and measurement of contact angles between liquids and solid surfaces hold significant technological implications. This significance is particularly pronounced when considering water, as its interaction with solids governs numerous phenomena and processes on Earth. The wetting behavior of water on a solid surface profoundly influences its behavior. For instance, the contact angle of water on human skin measures approximately 90 degrees. If this angle were reduced to zero, water would be capable of infiltrating the skin's pores and potentially being absorbed into the bloodstream.

In the case of bird feathers, their unique structure is designed in such a way that the contact angle of water on a typical feather is remarkably high, often reaching around 150 degrees. This exceptional contact angle contributes to the feather's hydrophobicity, preventing water from adhering and maintaining the bird's insulation and flight capabilities.

To safeguard machines, such as lathes, particularly during transportation, preventive measures such as the application of a thin layer of grease or oil are employed. This protective coating acts as a highly non-wetting barrier with water, thus impeding the corrosion of machine surfaces. The formation of this non-wetting system effectively isolates the machine components from potential water-induced damage. By conducting in-depth investigations into contact angles and their implications, researchers and engineers can gain crucial insights that contribute to the development of technological advancements, improved materials, and enhanced surface treatments.

In addition to the previously discussed applications, contact angle measurements find wide-ranging utility in various other fields and industries. Notably, the characterization of contact angles contributes to the advancement of adhesives, lubricants, surface treatments, polymers, biomedicine, and numerous related disciplines. While the scope of specific examples is extensive, the aforementioned applications underscore the pivotal role played by contact angle analysis in diverse manufacturing sectors.

For instance, in the domain of adhesives, contact angle measurements aid in assessing the wettability and adhesion properties of adhesive materials on different surfaces. This knowledge informs the development of improved bonding agents and optimized adhesive formulations, ensuring reliable and durable adhesive bonds.

In the field of lubricants, contact angle analysis facilitates the understanding of the wetting behavior and film formation characteristics of lubricating fluids on various substrates. This insight guides the selection and formulation of lubricants tailored to specific applications, optimizing friction reduction, wear protection, and overall lubrication performance.

Surface treatments benefit from contact angle measurements as they enable the evaluation of surface energy, hydrophobicity, and surface modifications to enhance wetting or repelling properties. These measurements aid in designing coatings, paints, and surface treatments that exhibit desired functionalities such as anti-fouling, self-cleaning, or improved adhesion.

Contact angle analysis plays a crucial role in characterizing the surface properties and wetting behavior of polymers, enabling the optimization of processes such as molding, coating, and printing. This knowledge guides material selection, surface modifications, and formulation adjustments to achieve desired performance and manufacturing outcomes.

In biomedicine, contact angle measurements provide insights into the interaction between biological fluids, tissues, and medical devices. By assessing the wetting behavior and surface properties, researchers and engineers can design biocompatible materials, coatings, and implants, improving the efficacy and safety of medical devices and enhancing patient outcomes.

These examples, among many others, demonstrate the wide-ranging significance of contact angle measurements across numerous manufacturing industries. By harnessing the knowledge gained from contact angle analysis, researchers and practitioners can advance their understanding, optimize processes, and develop innovative solutions to meet the diverse needs of various industrial sectors.

For further reading:

Physical Chemistry of Surfaces, 3rd Ed, Arthur W. Adamson, Wiley-Interscience, New York (1976)

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